STD: - 8th

Sub: - Computer


Ex. 4

a.     Multitasking OS
Ans: A Multitasking operating system allows a single user to work on two or more applications that reside in memory at the same time. You do not have to quit one program to run other program as both programs can run at the same time.

b.    Multiprocessing OS
Ans: A Multiprocessing operating system can support two or more processors that run programs at the same time. Multi-processing increases the processing speed of a computer and can execute multiple processes simultaneously.

c.     Real Time OS
Ans: A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that guarantees to work within a specified time limit. It is specially designed to run applications with very precise timing and a high degree of reliability. RTOS used in measurement, automation systems, controlling the machines etc.

d.    Distributed OS
Ans: A distributed operating system is a network-based operating system which is carried out on more than one machine in a cooperative manner. In this OS, computers communicate with one another through various networks, such as high-speed cables and the Internet. A group of linked computers working cooperatively on tasks is referred to as a distributed system.

Ex. 5

a.     What is a software?
Ans: Software, also called a program, consists of a series of related instructions, organized for a common purpose that tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them.

b.    What is the role of Operating system?
Ans: An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that contains instructions for coordinating all the activities among computer hardware resources. It is considered as a backbone of computer, managing both software ad hardware resources.

c.     How many categories of Operating System are used? Name them.
Ans: There are three basic categories of operating system which are following: -
Stand-alone Operating system
Server Operating system
Embedded Operating System

d.    Differentiate between Stand-alone Operating System and Server Operating system.
Ans: An operating system that works on a desktop computer or notebook computer is called stand-alone operating system. E.g. Window, Mac OS and Linux.
A server operating system is an operating system that is designed specifically to support a network. E.g. Window Server, OS X server, Unix & Linux Solaris, Novell’s Netware and Bharat operating system (BOSS).

e.     What is a user Interface?
Ans: User often judge a system by its interface rather that its functionality. A good user interface provides a “user-friendly” experience, allowing the user to interact with the software or hardware in a natural and intuitive way. A poorly designed interface can cause a user to make terrible errors.

f.      How many types of User Interfaces are used? Name them.
Ans: There are two type of user interface
Command- Line Interface (CLI) or Character user Interface (CUI)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)

g.    Differentiate between CLI and GUI.
Ans: In a command-line interface, a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as functions keys or key combinations) to enter data and instructions. While Working with a command-line interfaces, the set of commands used to control actions is called the command language. E.g. DOS (Disk Operating System).
CLI and CUI (Character User Interface) both are same thing.

Most user today work with a graphical user interface. With the graphical user interface, you interact with menus, icons and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. E.g. Microsoft Window, Mac OS and Ubuntu.

Ex. 6

a.     What are the functions of Operating System? Explain any three. 

     Ans: The following sections discusses functions common to most operating systems. The operating system handles many of these functions automatically, without requiring any instructions form a user.

Explanations of any three are following: -
1. Processor management:
Processor management means managing the program or programs running on the processor at a given time. The operating system loads a program into the main memory and executes it.
2. Device Management:
The operating system controls peripheral devices by using device management. A device driver, also called a driver, is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a device. Devices will not function without their correct drivers.
3. User Interface:
A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions as well as the display of information on the screen. You interact with operating system through its user interface.

b.    Name some popular server operating systems. Define them.
Ans: Server Operating System are following: -
Window Server:
Developed by Microsoft, Windows Server enables organizations to manage applications and websites on-site, and/or cloud.
OS X Server:
Developed by Apple, to collaborate, share files, host websites and mail servers, and do much ,more on Mac computers and iOS devices.
Unix & Linus:
These are often called multipurpose OS because they are both stand-alone and server Operating S.
It is a version of UNIX, developed by Sun Microsystems. It is designed specifically for e-commerce applications.
Novell’s Netware:
It is designed for Client/server networks. NetWare support open source software and runs on all types of computers form mainframes to the personal computers.
Bharat Operating System Solutions (BOSS):
It is an easy to use version of Linux, developed by C-DAC, India.

c.     What is an Embedded Operating System? Give some examples.
Ans: The operating system on mobile devices and many consumer electronics is called a Mobile operating system or Embedded operating system. These operating system reside in the ROM chips. Mobile operating systems typically include or support calendar and contact management, text messaging, e-mail, touch screen, digital camera, media player, speech recognition, GPS navigations, a variety of third -party applications, a browser, and wireless connectivity such as cellular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
E.g. Google Android, iPhone OS, Blackberry OS, Window Phone.

d.    What are the basic principles while designing User Interface?
Ans: Basic principles while designing User Interface are following: -
User familiarity:
The interface should be based on user-oriented terms and concepts rather than computer concepts.
The system should display an appropriate level of consistency. Commands and menus should have the same format, command punctuation should be similar etc.
The system should provide some flexibility to user errors and allow the user to recover form errors. This might include an undo facility, confirmation of critical actions etc.
User guidance:
Some user guidance such as help system, on-line manuals, etc. should be supplied.
User diversity:
The interface should provide appropriate interaction facilities for different types of system user.

e.     What are the advantage of CLI?
Ans: Advantage of CLI are following: -

Ø The user is in direct communication with the computer.

Ø The user is not restricted to a number of predetermined options.

Ø It is possible to alter computer configuration settings.

Ø Working on CLI is fast.

Ø It is easy to integrate with scripting or coding and other programmatic interfaces.

f.      Write down the Characteristics of GUI.

Ans: Characteristics of GUI are following: -

Ø Window:
Multiple window allow different information to be displayed simultaneously on the user’s screen.

Ø Icon:
Icons display different types of information. On some systems, icons represent files, on others, icons represent processes.

Ø Menus:
Commands are selected form a menu rather that typed in command language.

Ø Ponting:
A Pointing device such as a mouse is used for selecting choices from a menu or pointing items of interest in a window.

Ø Graphics:

Graphical elements can be mixed with text on the same display.

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